Usually considered to bean or beans as the national dish of Chile.In Central American countries, however, is also very popular and even get to eat at breakfast, very appreciated being called "black beans."But also for our eating habits are very pleasant salads "green beans."Hence, it is tempting to grow this tasty vegetable taking advantage of the availability of land we have in the garden.
In our country it is grown mainly in the central zone, but occurs in good condition from Arica to the south.If we take the necessary precautions, the truth is that it is not difficult to culture.In winter, Central receives the outputs of green beans that come from the valleys of Arica.
The green beans
The first step is to choose varieties best to please us, because it is the beans that grow more like our family and us.As we mentioned before, is the green bean, also called "on table"-which serves to salads or to flavor other dishes.Currently there are several varieties, among which are the so-called Crystal Bay, which thrives in the area between Arica and Bío-Bío, so
So in a vast territory of our country we sow.Others are Apollo, the Doves (large and small) and known as Burros Argentinos Burritos and Rapper, that lend themselves to cultivate both table to pomegranates and harvest as dry beans or vegetable.To plant these varieties is to distribute the seeds to a distance of 60-70 cm, with a volume of 100-120 kilograms per hectare (ie 100 grams per square meter or so), either continuous flow or hand .As a curiosity we note that in the Far North area is planted throughout the year, while further south should be in the second half of October and early November, to avoid frost.
The "green bean" or "table" has a growing period of 120-125 days, with good yields, the plants are dwarf and vigorous, with tender pods and wireless.In the case of Crystal Bay, its grain is light tan (hence its name), slightly flattened.The species for planting on wood exposed to the virus known as "common mosaic, which is detected in the leaves, which are corrugated and dry, the plant dying.For this there is no solution other than starting, but there is no danger that they are catching the neighbors.
The dry bean
In Chile we have many varieties to "dry beans", among which are: Doves, Zepillín, Donkeys and Burros Argentine and Rice (which is small, white and soft palate).
To serve as a "great", that is cool in summer, a variety is commonly called a "frog" and grown in the Aconcagua and Valparaiso area.It is characterized by very pleasant and soft on the palate, especially when prepared with corn, either in grain or grated (or pudding, as it is known in some parts) and add a few basil leaves.The other species that lends itself to serve as "pomegranate" is the bean Rapper, which has the advantage of being in great demand and is grown in a wider area between Santiago and Nelspruit.
There are also varieties of beans, such as Red Kidney and Red Mexican, and others which are of mass consumption in Central America and Mexico, particularly.However, in Chile are not desired, because they give a dark broth.
Sowing and cultivation of beans
As we noted earlier, the bean is grown mainly in central Chile, due to climatic reasons, because this legume requires a warm and mild climate.Consider that does not tolerate frost, drought or prolonged rainfall.While it is true that the ideal area to the region comprising of the Bío-Bío, further south can be grown with late sowings, when frosts are not persistent rain.In any case, its performance is not optimal, even in small areas can be used for family consumption, unpretentious.
The culture is practiced in our country mainly on irrigated land with a more or less normal supply of available nitrogen and phosphorus-rich variety.In general, head makes one rotation, which includes the cultivation of wheat then associated it to clover or alfalfa, prairie which has two, three or more years.
As for the possibility of fertilizer, hardly needed, since the beans are associated with a bacteria that lodges in its roots in a form of "symbiosis" and that captures the nitrogen with which it feeds.
By planting the seed must take some precautions, as their distribution lines by hand or machine, if the area is larger.The distance between rows varies with plant development, ranging from 40cm for dwarf to 60cm for medium branches, and 80cm to the guides or climbing, so it is a vital space between them.
Regarding the arbor, take the example of the bean Tortola, which is a variety that does not develop very high and therefore needs no support.In the case of beans "huerteros" of branches, need to develop a "tutor" to which they can choose two options: plant corn associated with each plant or place a stick of connections, through which guide the branches and avoid them collapse.
Another aspect that must be cared for is the respect to the number of kilos of seed per square meter, since each variety is part of a separate volume, which can range from 90 to 130 grams.In any case, the seed will acquire the respective corresponding indication from the provider.
Be aware that some varieties, such as Rapper and Doves, you get the first seed and green beans or "table", then finally harvesting beans, pomegranates and dried beans, you can save for consumption in winter and all year round.
More recently there has appeared a variety of bean that is suitable for green consumption "in table", but whose form is not exactly on wood, but rather has a tubular or cylindrical, half inch thick and about 20 to 30cm long.There are even up to 50cm long.Bean is known as "tubular," "Turkish", "cylindrical" and so forth.The seeds of this bean are imported directly by agribusiness firms for preparation of frozen foods.